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TGD2: Particle explanations of characteristic properties
Language alert
Sometimes people talk about 'solid particles', ‘liquid particles’ or ‘gas particles’, as though there are three types of particle, but this is incorrect:

There are no ‘runny’ liquid particles or ‘hard’ solid particles.
The particles of a substance do not have different properties when the substance is in different states.

Particles of a substance in the gas state are just more energetic than particles of the same substance in the liquid

This is another example of how a phrase can inadvertently reinforce an incorrect model, in this case one which suggests that particles of a substance in the liquid or gas state are somehow different from particles of the same substance in the solid state. In order to avoid this, we do not refer to ‘solid particles’, ‘liquid particles’ or ‘gas particles’. We have not said anything about what individual particles are like, because the properties of a sample are determined by the collective properties of the particles, rather than the properties of individual particles.

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