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TGIntro4: Foundation Topics
The progression in ideas through the Foundation topics is as follows.

This section establishes the idea of a substance as being a special kind of ‘stuff’ with its own identity. This notion of identity is explored through examining melting and freezing points, and how we explain these using particle theory. The particle model animations use different-shaped particles to represent different substances, and a notable feature is that the model includes a representation of the forces between particles. This section then uses the particle model to help students understand the gas state and finishes with density.

Mixtures of substances
This section asks students to distinguish between mixtures of substances and pure samples of a substance. Starter questions include ‘How do we know if stuff is a mixture?’ and ‘How can we separate mixtures?’ Students then compare the melting points of mixtures and pure samples of substances. There is an explanation of evaporation, including evaporation at temperatures below boiling point, in terms of the particle model and energy of particles. Students also learn about the condensation of atmospheric water vapour, dissolving, different sorts of mixtures (e.g. smoke, foam, mist emulsion), solubility, and how mixtures can be separated.

Changing substances
In this section students learn that substances can change into other substances, and that chemical change results in the formation of new substances. The section introduces the concept of atoms, structures and bonds, and how structure is related to properties such as melting and boiling point. Later on in this section, students learn about how to detect chemical change, as well as different chemical reactions such as decomposition and reactions in solution.

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